Don’t mind me. I just have to do this.

Finally! Walang tinginan sa notes. WEEEEE!

Reviewer ko po! haha. If you’re interested, punta po kayo dun sa banda dulo. Matutuwa po kayo dun 🙂

cellular respiration
1. Glycolysis (cytoplasm) – Glucose > Dihydroacetone phospate & Glyceraldehyde phosphate > di-phosphoglycerate (NADH) > phosphoglycerate (ATP) > phosphoenolpyruvate (H2O) > pyruvate (ATP)
2. Transition Reaction/ Acetyl-coA formation/Prep stage (matrix) – pyruvate > Acetyl-coA (NADH, Co2)
3. Krebs Cycle (matrix) – Acetyl-coA (2C) + Oxaloacetate (4C) > Citrate (6C) > Isocitrate (6C) > Ketoglutarate (5C) (NADH) > Succinyl coA (4C) (NADH) > Succinate (4C) (ATP) > Fumarate (4C) (FADH) > Malate (H2O) > Oxaloacetate (NADH)
4. Electron Transport Chain (cristae)
Glycolysis (4 ATP + 2 NADH (2×3) – 2 INTIAL ATP) = 8 ATP
Prep (2 NADH (2×3)) = 6 ATP
Kreb (2 ATP + 6 NADH (6×3) + 2 FADH (2×2) = 24 ATP
== 38 ATP (36 – 38 ATP)

Photosynthesis (Photophosphorylation and Carbon Fixation)

Light Reaction (thylakoid -inside chloroplast) – Photosystem (Antenna Complex and Reaction Center)

a. Non-cyclic Photophosphorylation – Light strikes P700 chlorophyll sending electrons to Ferredoxin, to electron acceptors producing ATP.

b. Cyclick Photophosphorylation – Light strikes P680 chlorophyll sending electrons to Plastoquinone (electron can also come from water (H2O, hydrogen will be removed producing the by-product oxygen) to electron acceptors, will go through NCP, producing NADPH

Dark Reaction (stroma) (C3 Cycle, Carbon Fixation, Calvin Cycle, Calvin-Benson Cycle)

Three stages:

1. Carbon Fixation – carbon molecule enters the cycle, joining RuBP (Ribulose Biphosphate) forming a triphosphoglycerate

2. Carbon Reduction – ATP will be used making it a biphosphoglycerate. NADPH will be used making it a glyceraldehyde tri-phosphate (G3P) or the glucose itself and other organic compounds.

3. RuBP Regeneration – ATP will be used to the remaining G3P, producing another RuBP

Mitosis – somatic cells

Stages : Interphase (G1, Synthesis, G2), Prophase (1/3 of Mitosis, nuclear membrane dissapears, centrioles move to opposite sides, chromosomes condense), Metaphase (alignment of chromosomes at the center), Anaphase (chromosomes split at the center), Telophase (appearance of cleavage furrow or cell plate for plants (cytokinesis)

Meiosis – sex cells

Stages : Interphase, Prophase I (Leptonema (leptotene) Zygonema (synapsis happens, turning it into a bivalent or a triad) Pachynema (crossing over happens), Diplonema (chiasma), Diakinesis (preparation for Metaphase), Metaphase I, Anaphase I (triad turns to dyad), Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II (dyad to monad), Telophase II

-four daughter cells, genetically different


A. Archaea – lives in extreme environment

B. Eubacteria – true bacteria


Phylum Zygomycota – non septated (contains Sporangiospores)

Phylum Ascomycota septated (contains Conidiospores)

Phylum Basidiomycota – mushroom

Deuteromycota – sexual spores are not yet identified, but the asexual spores (sporangia, conidia) are identified

yeast – unicellular fungi

KINGDOM PROTISTA – animal like (protists), plant like (algae), fungal like

Plant-like Phyla : Chrysophyta (golden-brown) Rhodophyta (red), Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates), Chlorophyta (green), Phaeophyta (brown), Euglenophyta (euglenoids)

Animal-like Phyla : Sarcodina (amoeba) Sporozoa (paramecium) Ciliophora, Zoomastigophora

Fungal-like Phyla : Myxomycota, Acrasiomycota, Oomycota


Non Vascular (no true leaves, stems and roots) Bryophyta (mosses), Anthocerotophyta (horn worts), Hepatophyta (liverworts)


A. Seedless : Pteridophyta (fern), Psilotophyta (whisk fern), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Equisetophyta (horse tails)

B. Seeded

B.1. Angiosperms : Magnoliophyta > Class Magnolipsida & Liliopsida

B.2. Gymnosperms : Pinophyta (pines), Gingkophyta (maidenhair tree), Gnetophyta (shrubs), Cycadophyta (cycads)


Phyla : Porifera (sponge), Cnidaria (poisonous tangles), Platyhelminthes (flatworm) Annelida (segmented worms), Nematoda (round worms), Echinodermata (spiney skin), Arthropoda (insects), Mollusca (soft bodied with shell) Chordata (with notochord)

Chordata : Subphyla : Urochordata , Cephalochordata, Vertebrata

Vertebrata : Superclass Agnatha (jaw-less)

Superclass Gnathostomata (Jawed) Class : Chondricthyes (cartilaginous fishes) Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Aves (Birds) Mamalia (mamals) Reptilia (reptiles) Amphibia (amphibian)

PLANTS – has cellulose, complex organs, vascular tissues and cuticle

meristem (apical, intercalary, lateral); protoderm (dermal tissue – cuticle, root hair, trichomes. periderm – cork, cork cambium, lenticel); procambium (vascular cylinder/bundle/vein – xylem (tracheid, vessel elements – perforation plate) phloem (sieve cells & albuminous cells ; sieve tube members & companion cells); ground meristem (ground tissue – parenchyma (chlorenchyma, aerenchyma, transfer cells) collenchyma, sclerenchyma (sclereid, fibres). Root tip (root cap, quiescent center), Sub-apical Region (zone of cell division, zone of cell differentiation, zone of maturation) Stem (axillary bud, terminal bud, leaf scars, bundle scars). Leaf (petiole, midrib, vein, base, margin, apex); Flower (calyx, corolla, gynoecium, androecium); Pericarp/Fruit (exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp); Seed (hypocotyl, epicotyl, cotyledon)


a.Endocarp is hard (coconut) -DRUPE

b.Endocarp is soft, usually contains many seeds (tomato, banana) BERRY

b1. Exocarp is leather like with oil (orange, citrus fruits) HESPERIDIUM

b2. Exocarp does not contain oil (watermelon, pumpkin) PEPO

c. Pericarp came from the receptacle POME

d. Pericarp contains seed on one side and opens at maturity LEGUME

e. Pericarp doesn not open at maturity

e1. hard and thick – NUT

e2. hard and  fastened to the embryo (rice, wheat) GRAIN/CARYOPSES

We call them fruit when they came from the plant’s flower (e.g. eggplant, pumpkin, upo, tomato, mango, etc). If they are a product of the plants’ roots or stem (potato, ginger <<from roots) we call them vegetables.


4 thoughts on “Don’t mind me. I just have to do this.

  1. wow. this post caught my attention. what a small world. we do have the same interest ms. author. we both like biology and we both write fictions of richard and maya. im just happy. kudos to you fella! i find your stories interesting. keep it comin. thanks!

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